APA is one of the most developed and used styles among those that originate from the so-called Harvard system. According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), cited sources are written in the text within parentheses with information about the author and year. The style is frequently used in the natural sciences, social and behavioural sciences and medicine.
This guide is based on the latest edition of APA (the 7th edition).
There are a number of changes in the 7th edition of the APA manual. Here are some of the more important ones:
1. The publisher location is no longer included in the reference.
2. The in-text citations for works with three or more authors are now shortened from the first citation. You only include the first author's name "et al.".
3. Up to 20 authors should now be provided in the reference list. If a publication has more than 20 authors, use (...) as before.
4. DOIs are written the same way as URLs. The label "DOI:" is no longer needed.
5. URLs are no longer preceded by "Retrieved from", unless the date is needed. The website name is included (unless it's the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized.
6. The format, platform or device is no longer included in references for ebooks. Instead, the publisher is included.
7. There are clear guidelines for including contributors other than authors and editors. For example, when citing a podcast episode, you include the host of the episode.
8. More examples of online sources are added, such as social media posts and YouTube videos. The use of hashtags and emojis are also explained.
Read more about the changes in the 7th edition in APA's free guide What’s New in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition (PDF, 1.3MB)