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APA – Citing Sources

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Articles

Surname, A., Surname, B. & Surname, C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

Further reading on how to write references for journal articles on APA Style: Journal Article References

Volume and Number

Different journals use different combinations of denoting volume and number. Some journals only have volumes, others have only numbers, while others use both volume and number. The volume is a part of the journal name and should therefore also be in italics, just as the journal name should be, whereas the issue is stated in regular, non-italic, form, within parentheses.

 

Printed or Digital, DOI

Articles can be in both printed and digital form. The difference is that you, in the latter case, add a link to the article. This is usually a so-called DOI (Digital Object Identifier) which is a unique and persistent URL that will take you to the article even if it is moved from one place to another on the journal's website.

Note! For articles without DOIs from most academic research databases, there is no need to include a URL. Only include the URL if the article is from a website. Read more about this on APA Style: When to include DOIs and URLs

Example of references for works without DOI from academic databases: 

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217.

Om artikeln kommer från en webbplats, kan du inkludera en URL.

Example of references for works without DOI from webpages:

Green, B. (2018). A qualitative investigation of bullying of individuals with disabilities on a college campus. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(2), 135-147. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31

Article with one author

Basic format:

Author, A. A. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

References:

Article with volume and number:

Houle, C. (2019). Social mobility and political instability. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 63(1), 85–111. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002717723434

Article with volume, no issue:

Udo, T. (2019). Chronic medical conditions in U.S. adults with incarceration history. Health Psychology, 38, 217–225. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000720 

Article with issue, no volume (the year takes the place of the volume):

Blum, E. S. (2010). Building healthier communities from the ground up. Banking and Community Perspectives, 2010(2), 3–10.
 

In-text citations:​

  • According to one study (Udo, 2019) there are several . . .
  • Blum (2010) discusses this in . . .
  • As recent as 2019, Houle stated that . . .

Article with two authors

Basic format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

​References:

Article with volume and issue:

Ebrahimzadeh, A., & Giski, Z. E. (2019). Tsallis entropy of partitions in quantum logics. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 58(3), 672–686. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10773-018-3966-1

Article with volume, no issue:

Conley, C. C., & Andersen, B. L. (2019). Lemons to lemonade: Effects of a biobehavioral intervention for cancer patients on later life changes. Health Psychology, 38, 206–216. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000717

Article with issue, no volume (the year takes the place of the volume):

Sjögren, B., & Milos, P. (2019). ABC om aneurysmal subaraknoidalblödning: medicinens ABC. Läkartidningen, 2019(4), 146–150.https://lakartidningen.se/wp-content/uploads/EditorialFiles/ME/%5bFEME%5d/FEME.pdf ​

In-text citations:

  • According to one study (Ebrahimzadeh & Giski, 2019) it seems clear that . . .
  • Sjögren and Milos (2019) states that . . .
  • As late as 2019 Conley and Andersen showed this in a . . .

How you refer to a source in running text depends on how many authors the source has. Under In-text citation, Basic Styles, you will find instructions on how to refer to your sources.

 

Article with three to twenty authors

Basic format:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

​References:

Article with volume and number:

Norling, J. C., Sibthorp, J., Suchy, Y., Hannon, J. C., & Ruddell, E. (2010). The benefit of recreational physical activity to restore attentional fatigue: The effects of running intensity level on attention scores. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(1), 135–152. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2010.11950198

Colella, M., Bisanzo, M., Farquhar, C., Nambaziira, R., Carter, E., Gimbel, S., & O'Malley, G. (2019). Implementation and evaluation of an innovative leadership and teacher training program for non-physician emergency medicine practitioners in Uganda. African Journal of Emergency Medicine, 9(1), 25–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.afjem.2018.12.002

Article with volume, no issue:

Saikkonen, L., Herzon, I., Ollikainen, M., & Lankoski, J. (2014). Socially optimal drainage system and agricultural biodiversity: A case study for Finnish landscape. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 84–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.037

Article with issue, no volume (the year takes the place of the volume):

Gard, A., Lindahl, B., & Baron, T. (2015). Skillnader i vård av patienter med typ 1- och typ 2-hjärtinfarkt: riktlinjer för behandling vid typ 2-hjärtinfarkt saknas helt: originalstudie. Läkartidningen, 2015(48), 2163–2166. 
 

In-text citations:

For articles with three to twenty authors, the first author is followed by et al. unless it becomes unclear (that is when the citation becomes the same as another reference). In these cases , add as many names as necessary to make the citing unique. 

The first time the source is cited in the text:

  • According to one study (Saikkonen et al., 2014) it is clear that . . .
  • Norling et al. (2010) discuss this phenomena . . .
  • As late as 2019, Colella et al. found that . . .

To avoid ambiguity:

Both Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017) and Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017) have reported on this.

How you refer to a source in running text depends on how many authors the source has. Under In-text citation, Basic Styles, you will find instructions on how to refer to your sources.

Article with 21 or more authors

Basic format:

When an article has 21 or more authors, you write the first 19 authors followed by ellipsis points, consisting of three spaced full stops (periods), and finally the last author:

Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F.,Author, G., Author, H., Author, I., Author, J., Author, K., Author, L., Author, M., Author, N., Author, O., Author, P., Author, Q., Author, R., Author, S.,. . . Author, Z. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

References:

Article with volume and issue:

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437–472. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2

Article with volume, no issue (fictitious example below) Note that the number of the volume (77) also is in italics :

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77, 437–472. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2

In-text citations:

For articles with three to twenty authors, the first author is followed by et al. unless it becomes unclear (that is when the citation becomes the same as another reference). In these cases , add as many names as necessary to make the citing unique. 

  • According to one study (Kalnay et al., 1996) the general conclusion . . . 
  • Kalnay et al. (2018) also states . . .
  • In the article from 2018 Kalnay et al. also shows . . .

To avoid ambiguity: 

  • This have Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017) and Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017) reported on.

How you refer to a source in running text depends on how many authors the source has. Under In-text citation, Basic Styles, you will find instructions on how to refer to your sources.

Article with article number

Some journals online use article numbers instead of page numbering. This article number is found in the article or on the journal's webpage.  In the reference, provide the article number instead of the page range. 

Basic format:

Author, A. A., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(number), Article XXXXX. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

Example:

​Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Henrichs, N., Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J. R. (2018). Teaching medicine with the help of “Dr. House”. PLoS ONE, 13(3), Article e0193972. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193972

In-text citations:​:

or articles with three to twenty authors, the first author is followed by et al. unless it becomes unclear (that is when the citation becomes the same as another reference). In these cases, add as many names as necessary to make the citing unique. 

  • According to one study (Jerrentrup et al., 2018) it is clear that. . . 
  • Furthermore, Jerrentrup et al. (2018) mean that . . .
  • In the article from 2018 Jerrentrup et al. also show. . .

To avoid ambiguity: 

  • This have Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017) and Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017) reported on.

How you refer to a source in running text depends on how many authors the source has. Under In-text citation, Basic Styles, you will find instructions on how to refer to your sources.

Article with no volume, issue or page numbers

Basic format:

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Article title. Journal Title. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

​References:

Advance online publication:

Dardas, L. A., Woodward, A., Scott, J., Xu, H., & Sawair, F. A. (2018). Measuring the social impact of nursing research: An insight into altmetrics. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.13921​

Manuscript in preparation:

O'Shea, M. (2018). Understanding proactive behavior in the workplace as a function of gender [Manuscript in preparation]. Department of Management, University of Kansas.
Enter the author/authors affiliation in a distinct way.

Unpublished manuscript:

Yoo, J., Miyamoto, Y., Rigotti, A., & Ryff, C. (2016). Linking positive effect to blood lipids: A cultural perspective [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 

Manuscript submitted for publication:

Lippincott, T., & Poindexter, E. K. (2019). Emotion recognition as a function of facial cues: Implications for practice [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Department of Psychology, University of Washington. 

In press:

Pachur, T., & Scheibehenne, B. (in press). Unpacking buyer-seller differences in valuation from experience: A cognitive modeling approach. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

In-text citations:

For articles with three to twenty authors, the first author is followed by et al. unless it becomes unclear (that is when the citation becomes the same as another reference). In these cases, add as many names as necessary to make the citing unique. 

  • According to one study (Kalnay et al., 1996) the general conclusion . . . 
  • Jerrentrup et al. (2018) also states . . .
  • In the article from 2018 Jerrentrup et al. also show. . .

To avoid ambiguity:

  • This have Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017) and Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017) reported on.

How you refer to a source in running text depends on how many authors the source has. Under In-text citation, Basic Styles, you will find instructions on how to refer to your sources.

Read more:

Some articles you find online might miss some information, such as volume, issue number, and page numbers. They have not yet acquired this information but are still published online before they are formally included in an issue. However, they have often been assigned a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) which is a unique and persistent URL that will take you to the article even if it is moved from one place to another on the journal's website. In the APA manual, this kind of article is called "Advance online publication", but different publishers use other labels for the same thing, such as Latest Articles, EarlyCite, Early View, OnlineFirst, In Press etc. 

Basically, you create a reference to this kind of article in the same way as for ordinary published articles, except that you leave out the information about volume, issue, and page numbers. Instead, you use the phrase "Advance onoline publication" before the DOI link. You write the year that the article was published online on the journal's website. 

Other articles might be manuscripts that have been sent to a journal, but are in different stages before publication, in which case you can use the phrase "Manuscript in preparation". Or they might have been published online as "Advance online publication". If the manuscript is ready, but not published or sent to a journal, use the phrase "Unpublished manuscript". If it has been sent to a journal, but not yet accepted, use the phrase "Manuscript submitted for publication". If the manuscript has been accepted, but not yet published online as "Advance online publication", use the phrase "in press" instead of the year.  

N.B.! You should always check if the article has been assigned volume, issue, and page numbers as close to publishing your own paper as possible. 

Newspaper article in printed form

Basic format:

Author, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pages (use "p." for a single page and "pp." for multiple pages).

​References:

Article with author

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Commentary: If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma (e.g. pp. B1, B3, B5-B7). If the newspaper consists of different section, like A, B, C, etc., state those before the page numbers as well.

Article without author

Gör en insats för klimatet - ät ett vildsvin. (2019,  March 12). Jönköpings-Posten, p. 2.​​
Put the article title in the place of the authour.

In-text citations:

  • Some (Schwartz, 1993) have stated that . . .
  • Schwartz (1993) states that . . .
  • Already in 1993, Schwartz noted that . . .

It is sufficient to enter the year in the citation in the in-text citations and exclude the date.

  • In an article ("Gör en insats", 2019) this is judged being a . . .
  • When using articles without author, the article title works as a substitute. In the citation, the title is within quotation marks ("). It is sufficient to use the beginning of the article title. 

Read more about how to write references to newspaper articles on APA style: Newspaper Article References

Online news article

Basic format:

What differentiates a digital newspaper from a print version is only that you in the first case enter a link without pages. 

In the 7th edition of APA, you don´t have to write the phrase "Retrieved from" as was done in the 6th edition. The exception is when referencing to information on webpages where updates can occur without dates for the update (see the chapter about Websites).

Author, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Name of newspaper. https://xxxx

​References:

Article with author specified:

Fountain, H. (2019, April 25). A respite from record losses, but tropical forests are still in trouble. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/25/climate/tropical-forest-deforestation.html

Article with no author specified:

A whistleblower on Xinjiang has been detained: Is China behind the arrest? (2019, March 11). Washington Post. ​https://www.washingtonpost.com
Commentary: Put the article title on the place of the author in the reference.
Also note that if the article title ends with punctuation marks, like a question mark or an exclamation mark, do not insert a full stop (period) after the punctuation mark.

In-text citations:

  • Some (Fountain, 2019) have noted that the . . .
  • Fountain (2019) states that . . .
  • As late as 2019, Fountain found that . . .
  • In an editorial ("A whistleblower on Xinjiang", 2019) this is seen as . . .

For articles with no author specified, the title of the article is used as the main entry, instead of an author name. In the in-text citation, write the title within quotation marks, and it is enough to write the beginning of the title if it is long.


Read more about this on APA Style Blog: When and How to Include Page Numbers in APA Style Citations