Skip to Main Content

APA – Citing Sources

Tags: English

Audiovisual media and recorded lectures

Audiovisual media

Audiovisual media includes powerPoint slides or lecture notes, films, sound- and TV-casts, podcasts, static objects such as maps, artwork and photographs.

PowerPoint presentation

Presentation slides, or lecture slides, are in this context presentations produced with software programs such as PowerPoint, Keynote, Prezi, Google Slides and similar.
​Presentation slides are usually one of three types in a reference context:

  1. A slide presentation available openly online
  2. A slide presentation on an accessible intranet
  3. A slide presentation on a password protected intranet (such as Canvas or similar) that may not be accessible for the reader 

1. A slide presentation available openly online

A reference can be made according to the following basic format:

Author, A. (year). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Platform. https://xxxx

If no year can be identified, use n.d. (= no date) instead.

References:

Bifet, A. (2015). Introduction to big data [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/abifet/introduction-to-big-data-56258037

Totten, V. Y. (n.d.). Circadian rhythms and shift work [PowerPoint slides].  https://www.ifem.cc/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Circadian-Rhythms-and-Shift-Work-2010-VT.ppt

In-text citations:

  • (Totten, n.d.)
  • This is presented by Bifet (2015) in his . . . 

2. A slide presentation on an accessible intranet

A reference can be made according to the following basic format:

Author, A. (year). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Name of intranet. https://xxxx

Enter the URL of the log in page.
If no year can be identified, use n.d. (= no date) instead.

3. A slide presentation on a password-protected intranet​

This type is usually treated as "Personal communication" and is only cited in the text. No reference is created. Fictitious examples:

  • (A. Smith, personal communication, January 25, 2019)
  • This is also what A. Smith (personal communication, January 25, 2019) showed in her lecture slides . . .

Recorded lecture

1. A recorded lecture on an accessible learning management system

A reference can be made according to the following basic format:

Author, A. (year). Title of lecture [Recorded lecture]. Name of intranet. https://xxxx

Enter the URL of the log in page.
If no year can be identified, use n.d. (= no date) instead.

2. A recorded lecture on a password-protected learning management system

This type is usually treated as "Personal communication" and is only cited in the text. No reference is created. Fictitious examples:

  • (A. Smith, personal communication, January 25, 2019)
  • This is also what A. Smith (personal communication, January 25, 2019) showed in her lecture slides . . .

Motion picture

Basic format:

Producer, A. (Producer), & Director, B. (Director) (year). Title of movie [Motion picture]. Studio.

​References:

​Grazer, B. (Producer), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Motion picture]. Universal Studios.​

​Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

In-text citations:

  • (Grazer & Howard, 2001)

Read more:

The director is the main entry (the "author"). If such information is lacking, you can enter a role, such as producer etc. You enter "Movie" in the brackets and additional information, for example if the movie is a special edition. Use appropriate term separated with a semi-colon after the word "Movie" (se example). If there are several film companies associated with a movie, it is possible to enter them on the publisher position, separated by semi-colon.

YouTube

  • The main entry can be a person, an organization, or fictitious names.
  • Besides year, you also write month and day, if it is stated.
  • Author is in this case the name of the "real" person" who uploaded the clip. In the brackets you write this persons screen name.
  • If you only know the screen name, you write this as Author, without brackets.
  • You find the URL for a YouTube-clip in the browser's address field.

Basic format:​

Name, A. A. [User name]. (year, month and day). Title of YouTube Clip [Video]. You Tube. https://xxxx

YouTube commentary:

User name. (year). Re: Title of YouTube Clip [Video]. You Tube https://xxxx

As commentaries do not have any day and month stated, only the year is used.

​References:

YouTube clip:

Big Think. (2013, February 12). Are you dating a psychopath? [Video]. You Tube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5HIjA9hh4&lc

YouTube commentary:

49metal. (2016). Re: Are you dating a psychopath? [Video]. You Tube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5HIjA9hh4&lc=z13bu5ghznaawh0ez23ajz0gnquidx1z004

The YouTube clip is from 2013 and the YouTube commentary is dated as "3 years ago". You may also, although sparingly, write "ca." (= circa) after the year in square brackets like this: [2016 ca.]. If you are unsure, just use (n.d.) instead.

YouTube channel:  

EndNoteTraining. (n.d.). Home [YouTube Channel]. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCdTDZ4RUT9Jl81oRhpEIIxA

Use n.d. (= no date) since YouTube channels are undated.

In-text citations:

  • (Big Think, 2013)
  • (EndNoteTraining, n.d.)
  • (49metal, 2016)

News report

  • The main entry for a reference to an online news report is the title of the news report, in italics, followed by media description in square brackets [Video] and then, like newspaper articles, include year, month and date.
  • Last, the name of the platform and the URL.

Basic format:​

Title of the news report [Video]. (year, month and day). Platform. https://xxxx

​References:

A historical look back at DC scandals [Video]. (2013, February 15). Platform. http://www.wjla.com/video/2013/02/a-historical-look-back-at-dc-scandals.html

In-text citations:

  • ("A historical look", 2019)
    Place the title within quotation marks and shorten the title if it is long.

Read more:

In the 7th edition of the APA manual, there are no examples of this type of references. But the examples in this section follows partially the format of YouTube clips (and other streaming media), partially of the general instructions APA manual, 7th ed: Missing reference information.

Television series episode

  • The main entry is created in the same way as for motion pictures. Use descriptions such as "writer" and "producer". Use an appropriate description in square brackets.
  • If the person or persons have double roles, you can enter them in the parentheses, for example (Director & Writer).
  • If several persons have several roles or the same role, they can be entered in plural and after all names, example ( Writers & Executive producers). It can sometimes be hard to know which roles to enter in the reference, and the APA manual does not give direct answers to that, so you have to use common sense and enter the roles that seems fair.
  • Sometimes you can consult databases as LIBRIS, the web page of the production company, Internet Movie Database (IMDb), Wikipedia etc. for information.

Basic format:​

TV series:

Writer, A. (Writer), & Director, B. (Director). (Year-year). Name of television series [TV series]. Broadcasting company name.

When a series continues for several years, enter the start- and finishing year when you have that information (example): (2015-2019). When a series is only during one year, enter that year (example): (2017). When a series continues for several years and still is broadcasted, enter the start year, and "present" (example): (2015-present).

TV series episode:

Writer, A. (Writer), & Director, B. (Director). (Year, date). Title of episode (Season, Episode) [TV series episode]. In A. Producer (Executive producer), Name of television series. Broadcasting company name; Broadcasting company name;. 

​References:

TV series:

Simon, D., Colesberry, R.F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions, HBO.

TV series episode:

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E.B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artist First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios

In-text citation:

  • (Simon et al., 2002-2008)
  • (Barris, 2017)

Podcast

  • Use the host of the podcast as main entry.
  • State year, month and day.
  • Use a suitable description in square brackets, such as [Audio podcast] or [Video podcast].
  • State the URL to the platform (website) that hosts the podcast.

Basic format:​

Podcast:

Host A., (Host). (Year-Year). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Publisher. http://xxxx 

Podcast episode:

Host, A., (Host). (Year, date). Title of episode (Number of episode) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Publisher. https://xxxx

​References:

Podcast:

Vendatam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hiddenbrain

Podcast episode:

Glass, I., (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/443/amusementpark

In-text citation:

  • (Vendatam, 2018)

Music recording

Music recording - single song

  • State the name(s) of the songwriter(s) in the author position.
  • If an artist (or group), other than the writer(s), has recorded the song this is stated in square brackets after the song title.
  • If the recording year differs from the copyright year, you write this in parentheses.
  • The reference is constructed in a similar way as you would a chapter in a book.

Basic format:

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by A. A. Artist if other than the writer(s)]. On Title of album. Label. (Year of recording if other that the coyright year).

​References:

lang, k. d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed Nonesuch Records.

Jagger, M., & Richards, K. (1969). Gimme shelter [Recorded by P. Smith]. On Twelve. Columbia. (2007)

The second example above is a reference to a song written in 1969 by Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, and performed by Patti Smith on her record Twelve from 2007.

In-text citations:

In the in-text citation the track number is stated, or side number and track number if it is an LP:

  • (lang, 2008, track 10)

 

Music recordning - whole record

If you have bonus tracks or if it is a remix, and it is mportant for for your text, you can add that after the word Album

Basic format:

Artist. (Copyright year). Title of recording [Album]. Label. (Original work published year, if other than recoding year)

References:

Pink Floyd. (1987). The wall [Album]. Sony/Columbia. (Original work published 1979)

​In this example, it is a CD edition of a record recorded earlier in another format, therefore, the original year is stated (1979) as well.

In-text citations:

  • (Pink Floyd, 1987)