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APA – Citing Sources


Surname, A. (year). Book title. Publisher.

Book with one author

Basic format:

Author, A. (year). Title. Publisher.

​Reference example:

Kotler, P. (2016). Democracy in decline: Rebuilding its future. Sage Publications.

In-text citation:

  • Kotler (2016) states that ...
  • (Kotler, 2016)

Book with two authors

Basic format:

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title. Publisher.

Reference example:

Blackstock, J., & Low, S. (2019). Geoengineering our climate? Ethics, politics and governance. Routledge.

In-text citation:

  • According to a recent study (Ashton & Stone, 2018) it is clear that ...

When the authors are written in the running text you write 'and' instead of the ampersand (&):

  • Blackstock and Low (2019) state that ...

Book with three or more authors

Basic format:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (year). Title. Publisher.

Reference example:

Fast, K., Jansson, A., Lindell, J., Bengtsson, L. R., & Tesfahuney, M. (2018). Geomedia studies: Spaces and mobilities in mediatized worlds. Routledge.

In-text citation:

If a book has three or more authors, you only include the first author's name and "et al.".

  • According to an earlier study (Fast et al., 2018) it is clear that ...

How you refer to a source in running text depends on how many authors the source has. Under In-text citation, Basic Styles, you will find instructions on how to refer to your sources.

Book with an organization as author

For books and reports with organizational authors in digital form, see the sections E-book and e-book chapter and Report with the organizational author.

Basic format:

Organization. (year). Title. Publisher.

​Reference example:

World Health Organization. (2015). Mental health atlas 2014.

When the organizational author and publisher are the same, you leave out the publisher's information to avoid repetition.

In-text citation:

  • In a large investigation (World Health Organization, 2015) it is shown that ...
  • According to the World Health Organization (2015) you have to ...
  • In 2015, the World Health Organization released...

If an organization has an established acronym (abbreviation), you write the full name the first time you cite the source, include the acronym within parentheses, and use only the acronym the subsequent times you cite the same source. Note that if you write the full name within parenthesis, you write the acronym within square brackets, but if you write the full name in the running text you state the acronym within ordinary parentheses.

The first time:

  • This is shown in a big study (World Health Organization [WHO], 2015) ...
  • The World Health Organization (WHO, 2015) has compiled this data ...

Subsequent times:

  • In this study (WHO, 2015) it is also clear that ...
  • WHO (2015) continues to provide proof of ...

How you refer to a source in running text depends on how many authors the source has. Under In-text citation, Basic Styles, you will find instructions on how to refer to your sources.

Book with editor

Basic format:

This type of reference is only used when you want to cite an anthology or collected volume with one or more editors, not to any specific chapter or contributions in the book. In the latter case, see the section Book chapter instead.

Note: The publisher's location is no longer included in the reference.

Editor, A. (Ed.). (year). Title of the book. Publisher.

Use "Ed." for books with one editor and "Eds." for books with two or more editors.

​Reference example:

​Ekström, M., Kroon, Å., & Nylund, M. (Eds.). (2006). News from the interview society. Nordicom.

In-text citation: ​

  • This research is presented in an anthology from Nordicom  (Ekström, Kroon & Nylund, 2006) where several aspects are ...

Book in new edition

Basic format:

It is important to state which edition of the book you are citing if it is something else than the first edition. What you are referring to might not be included in a different edition than the one that you are citing, and it is that specific edition of the book that you want to direct the reader to.

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title (Xth. ed.). Publisher.
Commentary: Use the abbreviation "ed." for edition. The edition number is stated, followed by the ordinal number abbreviation: use "th" for all numbers except those that end with 2 as second, and 3 as third, examples: 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th ... 21st, 22nd, 23rd, etc.

Reference example:

Carr, I., & Kidner, R. (2003). Statutes and conventions on international trade law (4th ed.). Cavendish.​

In-text citation:

  • According to an earlier study (Carr & Kidner, 2003) it is clear that ...

Book in translation

In general, you don't need to include the translator of a publication. However, when it comes to works where the translator is of importance concerning the interpretation of the work, this can be included, for example in philosophical works and fiction. You can also include the year the work was originally published, especially if there is a big difference between the original work and the translation. 

Basic format:

Author, A. (year). Title (Translator initials. Translator last name, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Reference example:

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). (Original work published 1814)

In-text citation:

If you have the originally published year included in the references, write both the published year and the originally published year in the in-text citation in the following way: 

  • (Laplace, 1814/1951)
  • Laplace (1814/1951) stated that ...

Book with foreword or introduction by another author

  • In the reference list, provide the author of the work, followed by the name of the person who wrote the foreword within parenthesis. 
  • When citing the foreword, both the author of the work and the person who wrote the foreword should be included. 
  • In the example below, Burawoy wrote the foreword to the work by Nyden et al. 

Basic format: 

Author, A. (with Author, A.). (year). Title. Publisher. 

Reference example: 

Nyden, P., Hossfeld, L., & Nyden, G. (with Burawoy, M.). (2012). Public sociology: Research, Action, and Change. Pine Forge.

In-text citation: 

  • Burawoy states that the work by Nyden et. al. (2012) shows that we still have a choice to... 
  • .....(Nyden et al., 2012, foreword by Burawoy).


Basic format:


Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title. Publisher. http://xxxx

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title. Publisher.

Organization. (year). Title. Publisher - if other than the organization. http://xxxx

Book chapter:

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of the whole book (pp. xxx-xxx).

​Reference examples:


Azam, M. (2016). Intellectual property and public health in the developing world.

World Health Organization. (2016). Women’s health and well-being in Europe: beyond the mortality advantage. 

​Book chapter:

Zenou, M., & Grainger, L. (2018). Additive manufacturing of ceramic components. In J. Zhang & Y.-G. Jung (Eds.), Additive manufacturing: Materials, processes, quantifications and applications (p. 53-103).

In-text citation:

  • According to an earlier study (Azam, 2016) it is clear that ...
  • Zenou and Grainger (2018) conclude that ...

Read more:

References to e-books and e-book chapters are created in the same way as those to ordinary printed books and book chapters, but you also add a link or a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if such exists. If the e-book is a dissertation or a report, see sections Dissertations & Student theses and Reports.