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APA – Citing Sources

Books

Surname, A. (year). Book title. Publisher.

Book with one author

In-text citation:

  • . . . and academic texts require reliable evidence to support any statements made (Nodén, 2023).
  • Nodén (2023) emphasizes that . . .

In the reference list:

Author, A. (year). Title. Publisher.

​Reference example:

Kotler, P. (2016). Democracy in decline: Rebuilding its future. Sage Publications.

Book with two authors

In-text citation:

  • . . . and academic texts require reliable evidence to support any statements made (Nodén & Welander, 2023).

When the authors are written in the running text you write 'and' instead of the ampersand (&):

  • Nodén and Welander (2023) emphasize that . . .

In the reference list:

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title. Publisher.

Reference example:

Blackstock, J., & Low, S. (2019). Geoengineering our climate? Ethics, politics and governance. Routledge.

Book with three or more authors

In-text citation:

If a book has three or more authors, you only include the first author's name and "et al.".

  • . . . and academic texts require reliable evidence to support any statements made (Nodén et al., 2023).
  • Nodén et al. (2023) emphasize that . . .

In the reference list:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (year). Title. Publisher.

Reference example:

Fast, K., Jansson, A., Lindell, J., Bengtsson, L. R., & Tesfahuney, M. (2018). Geomedia studies: Spaces and mobilities in mediatized worlds. Routledge.

Book with an organization as author

In-text citation:

  • In a large investigation (World Health Organization, 2015) it is shown that ...
  • According to the World Health Organization (2015) you have to ...
  • In 2015, the World Health Organization released...

If an organization has an established acronym (abbreviation), you write the full name the first time you cite the source, include the acronym within parentheses, and use only the acronym the subsequent times you cite the same source. Note that if you write the full name within parenthesis, you write the acronym within square brackets, but if you write the full name in the running text you state the acronym within ordinary parentheses.

The first time:

  • This is shown in a big study (World Health Organization [WHO], 2015) ...
  • The World Health Organization (WHO, 2015) has compiled this data ...

Subsequent times:

  • In this study (WHO, 2015) it is also clear that ...
  • WHO (2015) continues to provide proof of ...

In the reference list:

Organization. (year). Title. Publisher.

​Reference example:

World Health Organization. (2015). Mental health atlas 2014.

When the organizational author and publisher are the same, you leave out the publisher's information to avoid repetition.

For books and reports with organizational authors in digital form, see the sections E-book and e-book chapter and Report with the organizational author.

Book with editor

This type of reference is only used when you want to cite an anthology or collected volume with one or more editors, not to any specific chapter or contributions in the book. In the latter case, see the section Book chapter instead.

In-text citation: ​

  • This research is presented in an anthology from Nordicom  (Ekström, Kroon & Nylund, 2006) where several aspects are ...

In the reference list:

Editor, A. (Ed.). (year). Title of the book. Publisher.

Use "Ed." for books with one editor and "Eds." for books with two or more editors.

​Reference example:

​Ekström, M., Kroon, Å., & Nylund, M. (Eds.). (2006). News from the interview society. Nordicom.

Book in new edition

In-text citation:

  • According to an earlier study (Carr & Kidner, 2003) it is clear that ...

In the reference list:

When citing a book that is not the first edition, it is important to state which edition you are referring to. This is because the content you are citing may not be present in other editions of the book, and you want to guide your reader to the exact edition you are citing.

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title (Xth. ed.). Publisher.
Commentary: Use the abbreviation "ed." for edition. The edition number is stated, followed by the ordinal number abbreviation: use "th" for all numbers except those that end with 2 as second, and 3 as third, examples: 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th ... 21st, 22nd, 23rd, etc.

Reference example:

Carr, I., & Kidner, R. (2003). Statutes and conventions on international trade law (4th ed.). Cavendish.​

Book in translation

In general, you don't need to include the translator of a publication. However, when it comes to works where the translator is of importance concerning the interpretation of the work, this can be included, for example in philosophical works and fiction. You can also include the year the work was originally published, especially if there is a big difference between the original work and the translation. 

In-text citation:

If you have the originally published year included in the references, write both the published year and the originally published year in the in-text citation in the following way: 

  • (Laplace, 1814/1951)
  • Laplace (1814/1951) stated that ...

In the reference list:

Author, A. (year). Title (Translator initials. Translator last name, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Reference example:

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). (Original work published 1814)

Book with foreword or introduction by another author

In-text citation: 

  • Burawoy states that the work by Nyden et. al. (2012) shows that we still have a choice to... 
  • .....(Nyden et al., 2012, foreword by Burawoy).

In the reference list:

  • Provide the author of the work, followed by the name of the person who wrote the foreword within parentheses. 
  • When citing the foreword, both the author of the work and the person who wrote the foreword should be included. 
  • In the example below, Burawoy wrote the foreword to the work by Nyden et al. 

Author, A. (with Author, A.). (year). Title. Publisher. 

Reference example: 

Nyden, P., Hossfeld, L., & Nyden, G. (with Burawoy, M.). (2012). Public sociology: Research, Action, and Change. Pine Forge.

E-book

In-text citation:

  • According to an earlier study (Azam, 2016) it is clear that ...
  • Zenou and Grainger (2018) conclude that ...

In the reference list:

Book:

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title. Publisher. http://xxxx

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title. Publisher. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

Organization. (year). Title. Publisher - if other than the organization. http://xxxx

Book chapter:

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of the whole book (pp. xxx-xxx). https://doi.org/xx.xxxx

​Reference examples:

Book:

Azam, M. (2016). Intellectual property and public health in the developing world. https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0093

World Health Organization. (2016). Women’s health and well-being in Europe: beyond the mortality advantage. https://www.who.int/europe/publications/i/item/9789289051910 

​Book chapter:

Zenou, M., & Grainger, L. (2018). Additive manufacturing of ceramic components. In J. Zhang & Y.-G. Jung (Eds.), Additive manufacturing: Materials, processes, quantifications and applications (p. 53-103). https://doi.org/10.1016/C2016-0-01595-4

Read more:

References to e-books and e-book chapters are created in the same way as those to ordinary printed books and book chapters, but you also add a link or a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if such exists. If the e-book is a dissertation or a report, see sections Dissertations & Student theses and Reports.