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APA – Citing Sources


  • If no publication date is available, use, n.d. (=no date) instead of the year.  
  • To make it easier for the reader to identify and retrieve the source, include a description of the source within square brackets after the title.
  • If the material is available online, also include a URL.

Basic format:

Author, A. (year). Title [Description]. Publisher. https://xxxx 

Organization. (year). Title [Description]. Publisher. https://xxxx


European Space Agency. (2019). Space economy Creating value for Europe [Broschure].

Comment: In this case, the publisher is the same as the author and can therefore be omitted.  


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (n.d.). You Can Quit Tobacco Benefits and Tips for Quitting for Good [Brochure]. Retrieved October 13, 2022, from

Comment: If no date is cited in the brochure, include a retrieval date. 

In-text citation: 

  • European Space Agency (2019)...
  • (European Space Agency, 2019)