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APA – Citing Sources

Dissertations & student theses

References for dissertations (inluding doctoral dissertations and licentiate theses) and student theses are written like references for books with additional information about publication type. Links can be added if appropriate.


Includes doctoral dissertations and licentiate theses. The APA manual does not give any examples of references for dissertations in printed form. 

Basic format:

In printed form (our suggestion):

Author, A. (year). Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation/Licentiate thesis]. Publisher.

In digital form (APA):

Author, A. (year). Title of dissertation  [Doctoral dissertation/Licentiate thesis, University]. Database or archive name. https://xxxx


In printed form (our suggestion):

Gustafsson, T. (2004). Maintaining data consistency in embedded databases for vehicular systems [Licentiate thesis]. Linköping University.


Abusabib, M. A. (1995). African art: an aesthetic inquiry [Doctoral dissertation]. Uppsala University.

In digital form (APA):

​Gebremichael, T. (2019). Lightweight cryptographic group key management protocols for the Internet of Things [Licentiate thesis, Mid Sweden University]. DiVA.


​Siafakas, D. (2019). On particles and slags in steel casting [Doctoral dissertation Jönköping University, School of Engineering]. DiVA.

In-text citations:

  • According to an earlier study (Abusabib, 1995) the . . .
  • Siafakas (2019) states that . . .
  • In 1995, Abusaib discusses this in . . .

Student thesis

Includes a variety of thesis types, such as bachelor's and master's theses. State the type that is given in the thesis. The APA manual does not give any examples of references for student theses in printed form.

Basic format:

In printed form (our suggestion):

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of student thesis [Bachelor's thesis or Master's thesis]. Publisher.

In digital form (APA):

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of student thesis [Bachelor's thesis or Master's thesis, University]. https://xxxx


In printed form:

Athley, J., & Mauritzson, G. (2018). Concept for stroller chassis [Bachelor's thesis]. Jönköping University, School of Engineering.

In digital form:

Svanberg, M., & Karlsson, E. (2018). Active or passive fund management: A comparison between active and passive Swedish funds before, during and after the financial crisis [Bachelor's thesis, Linnaeus University].

In-text citations:

  • In a bachelor's thesis, this becomes clear (Athley & Mauritzson, 2018).
  • Svanberg and Karlsson (2018) reach the conclusion that . . .
  • In a master's thesis from 2017 Schmickt and Gehrig describe this as . . .