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APA – Citing Sources

Encyclopedias & dictionaries

  • For dictionaries in printed form, these references are constructed like references to chapters in books. The publisher should also be included.
  • If no author is stated, but there is an organization behind the source (e.g. Merriam-Webster) this is stated, then exclude the publishing information. 
  • Add web address if it is an online source. 
  • Include a retrieval date, i.e. the date when you accessed the source if the web page is continuously updated. Read more about retrieval dates on APA: Stye: Retrieval dates.

Encyclopedias and dictionaries in digital form

In-text citation:

  • And this is how the term Doublespeak is defined (Lutz, 1996).
  • Graham (2016) states that . . .
  • In 1996 Lutz defines this as . . .

In the reference list: 

Author, A. A. (year). Title of entry. Title of encyclopedia or dictionary. Retrieved from https://xxxx

If no year can be verified, write (n.d) instead (n.d. = no date).


​Graham, G. (2017). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (2017 ed.). Retrieved February 15, 2019, from

Encyclopedias and dictionaries in printed form

In-text citations:

  • Graham (2016) states that . . .
  • In 1996 Lutz defines this as . . .

In the reference list: 

Author, A. A. (year). Title of entry. In B. Editor (Ed./Eds.), Title of encyclopedia or dictionary. Publisher.

  • Note: Ed. = one editor, Eds. = two or more editors.


Lutz, W. (1996). Doublespeak. In T. Enos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of rhetoric and composition: Communication from ancient times to the information age (pp. 198–199). Garland Publishing.


  • Wikipedia articles do not have one author, instead, you start with the entry word.
  • Cite the revision history date, so that the reader can tell what version you have used. Access the archived version by selecting "view history" and choosing the date for the version you have used. 
  • For Wikis which do not have a revision history, you should instead of a year and a date write (n.d.) [= no date] and include the retrieval date. 

Read more about citing Wikipedia entries on APA Style: Wikipedia Entry References

In-text citations:

  • And this is also how the term is defined ("Ganglion," 2020).
  • "Ganglion" (2020)

In the in-text citation, the entry word is written within quotation marks.

In the reference list:

Entry. (year, month date). In Wikipedia. Retrieved date from https://xxxx


Ganglion. (2020, December 18). In Wikipedia.