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APA – Citing Sources

Online learning management systems (Canvas)

NB: If you want to reference a PowerPoint presentation, see the section on PowerPoint presentations.

1. Documents your readers have access to:

Author, A. A. (year). Title. Name of the learning management system https://xxxx
Link to the online learning management system.
If no year can be identified, write n.d.


Zetterlind, M., & Keller, C. (n.d.). Online research methods. Canvas.

In-text citations:

  • Recent research shows that... (Zetterlind & Keller, n.d.). 

2. Documents your readers cannot access:

This type is usually treated as "Personal communication" and is only cited in the text. No reference is created. Fictitious examples:

  • (A. Smith, personal communication, January 25, 2019)
  • This is also what A. Smith (personal communication, January 25, 2019) showed in her lecture slides . . .