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APA – Citing Sources

Patents & standards

Write the inventors' names as entries in the reference list. Add the publication year (also "issue date" or "publication date") of the patent, not the filing date. If you have found the patent online, add the web address.

In-text citation:

  • (Appleman, 2013)
  • This is mentioned in Appleman (2013) . . .

In the reference list:

Inventor, A. (year). Title of the patent (Patent number). Patent agency. https://xxx

​Reference example:

Appleman, B. (2013). Preventing co-user addition to user definable co-user lists (U.S. Patent No. 9,172,667). U.S Patent and Trademark Office.


In-text citation:

The first time you cite the standard you have to write the organization's name in its full form. But you might want to use the acronym in subsequent citations. This is how you do it:​

First time:

  • (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 2018)
  • This is described in a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO, 2018).

Subsequent citations:

  • (ISO, 2018)
  • In the same standard from ISO (2018) this is described as . . .

Write the name of the standardisation organization in its full form. The publisher is often the same as the standardisation organization.

In the reference list:

Organization. (year). Title of the standard ('Organization acronym' number of standard). Publisher. https://xxxx

​Reference example:

International Organization for Standardization. (2018). Occupational health and safety management systems—Requirements with guidance for use (ISO 45001:2018). International Organization for Standardization.