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APA – Citing Sources

Unpublished material

These types of publications are manuscripts that might be submitted for publication or works in progress. In this category, you might also find manuscripts that are not formally published but are retrievable online on personal or institutional websites. If no year can be identified, use "n.d." instead (= no date).

Basic format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of manuscript.  [Unpublished manuscript or Manuscript submitted for publication or Manuscript in preparation]. https://xxxx

If a university or other organization can be identified:

Author, A. A., & Author, B.B. (year). Title of manuscript. [Unpublished manuscript or Manuscript submitted for publication or Manuscript in preparation], Department, University. https://xxxx


Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2003). A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives. [Unpublished manuscript], Department of Psychology, University of British Colombia, Vancouver, Canada.


Dahlqvist, J. (2007). The market newness of new ventures. [Manuscript submitted for publication].


Smith, J. (n.d.). Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. [Manuscript in preparation].

In-text citations:

  • According to a study (Blackwell, 2008) there are . . .
  • (Smith, n.d.)
  • Blackwell and Conrod (2003) argue that . . .

Direct quotations:

When you cite something verbatim (word-for-word), you do this by putting these words within quotation marks ("), and you also have to state the page in the source wherein you found the quote.

(Blackwell & Conrod, 2003, p. 11)