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APA – Citing Sources

Unpublished material

These types of publications are manuscripts that might be submitted for publication or works in progress. In this category, you might also find manuscripts that are not formally published but are retrievable online on personal or institutional websites. If no year can be identified, use "n.d." instead (= no date).

In-text citation:

  • According to a study (Blackwell & Conrod, 2003) there are . . .
  • Blackwell and Conrod (2003) argue that . . .

In the reference list:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of manuscript.  [Unpublished manuscript or Manuscript submitted for publication or Manuscript in preparation]. https://xxxx

If a university or other organization can be identified:

Author, A. A., & Author, B.B. (year). Title of manuscript. [Unpublished manuscript or Manuscript submitted for publication or Manuscript in preparation], Department, University. https://xxxx

Reference example:

Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2003). A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives. [Unpublished manuscript], Department of Psychology, University of British Colombia, Vancouver, Canada.